Once you've filled your TFSA to the max and potentially your RRSPs (if it's right for you), we enter a dilemma: do we pay off our mortgage, or do we save in taxable Cash/Margin accounts?
To analyze this properly, I divided Canadians into two groups. Group 1 are people who understand risk, volatility, and don't mind taking on smart debt to invest. Group 2 are people who are debt-averse or lack a solid understanding of the risk/volatility relationship.
We will begin by looking at considerations for Group 2.
Mortgage Pay Off
Our mortgage rates are near all-time lows; bank prime is sitting at 2.7%. Any Canadian with decent credit can get a mortgage at around 2.5% right now. Just 0.5% over our inflation rate--basically free money!
This makes mortgage pay-off math pretty easy. Your current rate of return paying off your mortgage is about 2.5%. We are not going to adjust for inflation, so we will use nominal return numbers. That equals 7.5% return on investments and house values increasing 2% annually.
We are doing this because your mortgage payment doesn't go up by the inflation rate over the 25 year period--the only variable is the interest rate. This means the money for extra mortgage payments or investing doesn't increase with inflation either.
Investing While Paying Mortgage
For a $500,000 house we put 20% down (always), so our monthly payment over 25 years at 2.5% is $1,790. In 25 years, we outright own a house now worth $822,000. We also save $200 a month for 25 years in a taxable investment account at 7.5%. At 25 years, we have $173,000. Our total net worth on the $1,990 monthly payment+investment after 25 years is $995,000.
Pay Off Mortgage First, Then Invest
If we add $200 a month to each $1,790 payment, our mortgage will be paid off in just 21 years and 8 months. This leaves 40 months of saving $1,990 in our investment account. Therefore in 25 years we own the same $822,000 house, plus $90,500 in investments. Our total net worth on a $1,990 monthly payment+investment after 25 years in this strategy is $912,500.
We are $82,500 better off when we invest and make the minimum mortgage payment. However, that is at today's super low mortgage rates.
If we increase the mortgage interest rate to 7.5% for a $2,925 monthly payment + $200 savings, we will have the same net worth at 25 years if our investment return is 7.5%.
Mortgage payments and investment contributions (not including RRSP) are made with "after-tax" money. This means we have already paid taxes on our earnings before making these payments/contributions.
Once a mortgage is paid off, you don't pay income taxes on the benefit a paid-off house provides: displacement of some housing costs. However, you are required to pay tax on realized capital gains and distribution income from your investments.
It is important not to let tax confusion rule your investment choices as in this case it has minimal impact; the biggest difference lies in the capital gains.
Paying off the house early and investing $1,990 for 40 months translates to a maximum taxable capital gain of $11,000 on a $90,500 investment account. The other $79,500 is your contributions and these won't be taxed again. If you are in a 20% tax bracket in retirement, your expected tax bill on the capital gains is $1,100. This reduces your "net" account value to $89,400.
When investing $200 a month for 25 years, the max taxable capital gain is $113,000 on a $173,000 investment account. In the same tax bracket, your expected tax bill is $11,300. This reduces your "net" account value to $161,700.
Given all considerations, unless the mortgage interest rate is close to your nominal expected return on investment, you are almost certainly better off investing your extra money instead of paying off your mortgage early.
One factor that can't be easily argued by a numbers nerd like myself is the oft-discussed psychological benefits of paying off your mortgage early. However, I believe this is a foolish and short-sighted defense for aggressive mortgage repayment.
At current rates on a $400,000 mortgage, an extra $200 a month will pay off a house 3 years and 4 months early. An extra $500 a month will pay it off about 7 years early.
This seems significant, but it's only one side of the picture. Over 21 years and 8 months, $200 properly invested each month results in a $128,000 investment account. $500 a month over 18 years grows to $227,000.
Diversification is important! In my book a small mortgage balance and a fat investment account is much better than no mortgage and no investment account. If I run into financial trouble with no investments, I have to remortgage or sell my house (we know how pricey that is). Getting money could take months!
On the other hand, if I run into financial trouble with a fat investment account and a small mortgage, I can still refinance my house and I can also realize income from my investments at a very low cost. Selling some ETF units will cost me $10 and the money will be in my chequing account tomorrow.
Come back on Monday; I will examine tax considerations for investing in Cash/Margin accounts during your investment growth period.