I get asked occasionally about investment options in the Smith Manoeuvre. Do you need to invest in a dividend strategy? What about ETFs? Can you use a trend portfolio?
The investment portfolio is an important component of the Smith Manoeuvre strategy. In order to have the HELOC loan interest qualify as a tax deductible expense (the whole point of the Smith Manoeuvre), you need a dedicated non-registered investment account where your borrowed money is invested.
This money should be carefully tracked at every step of the way to ensure full tax compliance. This means direct transfers from your HELOC to your Smith Manoeuvre investment account. Dividends from the Smith Manoeuvre investment account go to your Smith Manoeuvre chequing account. Both sides of your HELOC get paid from your Smith Manoeuvre chequing account.
These accounts are only for the Smith Manoeuvre process. No outside money, no mixing accounts to save a couple bucks on any account fees, and no taking money from your HELOC to pay for Mexico vacations or concrete countertops.
The structure is not necessarily simple, as you can see by my chart below. But the rewards are significant!
You can save thousands of dollars a year in taxes just for moving money through a few extra accounts once a month. This tax money can be used to pay off your traditional mortgage faster and boost your investment accounts.
Once you have all the accounts set up and understand the process, it should take no more than a few minutes of your time, a few times per month to complete the transactions.
SM Investment Account
All of the component accounts of the Smith Manoeuvre are necessary for the strategy to work seamlessly.
As per the CRA's definition of income, every last dollar in your Smith Manoeuvre investment account (money borrowed from Portion 2 of the HELOC) must be invested in an asset that generates one of these types of income: Canadian dividends, foreign dividends, interest income, or certain forms of business income.
It's important to understand the distributions are not required to exceed your interest expenses. It is just some income that qualifies for your loan interest to be tax deductible.
Capital gains (distributed or embedded) or return of capital distributions do not count!
The direct application of income generating assets from your borrowed money is why your Smith Manoeuvre investment account must be kept separate from any other non-registered investments.
ETF Investing in your SM Account
It is certainly possible to invest with ETFs in your Smith Manoeuvre investment account and be tax deductible and successful.
As long as the ETFs pay dividends or interest, whether they are foreign or Canadian-based, they are likely to meet the standard for tax deductibility on your HELOC loan.
Although there are differing opinions on this, I would avoid most funds which are advertised as being tax efficient. This includes swap-based ETFs, T-series funds, or corporate class funds.
Compared with direct stock investing, ETFs may simplify the investing process and decision making, but they are likely to add some complication your tax situation. They are also likely to be less tax efficient compared with other options.
The problem with the vast majority of ETFs is that they distribute several different forms of income each year within each distribution.
Some forms of income are less desirable because they are taxed at higher rate, such as foreign dividends and interest. These are commonly found in international equity ETFs and bond ETFs.
Distributed return of capital, common with ETFs and REITs, causes you more work at tax time and can reduce the tax deductibility of your SM HELOC over time if not adjusted correctly.
Most ETFs and mutual funds are likely to be less tax efficient than investing directly in Canadian-listed stocks. That doesn't mean you should avoid all ETFs, but it does mean you should take this into consideration when planning your investment strategy.
If you invest in ETFs, you should prefer ETFs which are low cost, highly liquid, and pay a low distribution yield.
Avoid bond ETFs where the investment return is mainly in the form of distributions instead of unit price gains.
Investing with ETFs means you can employ a large variety of the strategies I talk about on this blog. That includes buy-and-hold investing with Vanguard Portfolio ETFs and my TADM strategy.
Stock Investing in your SM Account
Investing directly in publicly-listed Canadian corporations is a popular strategy for Smith Manoeuvre investors.
Directly holding Canadian stocks means you can design a very tax efficient portfolio that is very likely to meet the requirements for interest deductibility set out by the CRA.
As long as the company stock you invest in pays a tiny dividend or even states intent to pay a dividend at some point in the future, your SM HELOC interest will be tax deductible.
Directly investing in individual corporations also helps you avoid the potential distribution mix nonsense of many ETFs and REITs. Individual corporations distribute dividends, that's it.
Canadian-listed companies distribute dividends which are eligible for the dividend tax credit. This can significantly lower your tax bill on the distributed investment income, keeping your account tax efficient.
There are countless strategies you can use to invest with individual stocks. Trend investing, value investing, dividend growth, high yield dividend, Buffet moats, large cap equal weight, etc.
The keys to successful individual stock investing include: adequate diversification, systematic buying and selling, and cutting losses on positions when needed.
If your strategy kicks you out of a stock position, don't hold cash in your SM account. Instead, put the money in a more tax friendly bond fund like the FirstAsset 1-5 Year Laddered Strip Bond ETF (BXF.TO) or the BMO Discount Bond ETF (ZDB.TO).
Of the strategies I mentioned, naturally I'm a fan of trend investing. It's generally easy to track, requires little guesswork or "guesstimating", and can result in a pretty smooth ride.
Let's look at a portfolio of ten currently popular Canadian stocks which pay dividends: Royal Bank, Manulife, Power Financial, Enbridge, ATCO, Canadian National Railway, Loblaws, Telus, Brookfield Asset Management, and Fairfax Financial.
Since 2001, if you would have run a 10-month simple moving average screen on these stocks, trading no more than once a month, you would have seen fantastic results.
The portfolio would have a maximum drawdown of 11 percent and a compound return over 10 percent per year.
To achieve that same level of risk in a Canadian Couch Potato portfolio, you would have invested in the "Conservative" model. That's just 30 percent in the stock index and 70 percent in Canadian bonds.
Your compounded return would have been around 5.5 percent per year with that approach. Still decent, but certainly not great.
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